- Published on Tuesday, 15 November 2011 15:31
Insects are the most recognised group of invertebrate animals of the Slovinski National Park. Among the hundreds of insects species ascertained here, there has been proved the presence of 30 species being under strict protection - most of them are coleopters Coleoptera. The group of useful and commonly known ants Formicidae is represented by: southern wood ant Formica rufa, red wood ant Formica polyctena. In the late summer at the nearby meadows, there appear the webs in great quantities of a characteristic spider from the family of cross spiders Araneidae - wasp spider Agriope bruennichi (this spider is under strict protection in Poland). The world of mollusca (malaco-fauna) of the Slovinski National Park is represented by almost 70 species belonging to 2 phylums: snailsGastropoda and mollusca Bivalvia. Edible mussel Mytilus edulis common in the Baltic forms the largest submarine bank; on the other hand, freshwaterswan mussel Anodonta cygnaea (being under strict protection) is the most rear mollusc. An inconspicuous crustacean amphipod crustacean Talitrus saltator is also a very interesting invertebrate. This nighttime "beach cleaner" (it feeds with dead organic material) is unfortunately about to extinct, mainly because of being trampled by careless tourists.
Park's water reservoirs are immensely diversified and create convenient conditions for the existence of many fish species, both freshwater and the sea ones. In total, in the sea and fresh waters within the borders of the SNP, there has been proved the presence of approximately 60 fish species as well as 3 lamprey species. In the lakes of the SNP, beside the representatives of ichtchyofauna typically of freshwater character, one can meet sea fish; on the other hand, in the Baltic seaside zone freshwater fish can be found. In the water ecosystems of the SNP there also live bi-environmental species, these are the ones, which spend part of their lives in the sea and the other part in inland waters. To this category belong migratory fish such as salmon Salmo salar, brown trout Salmo trutta and eel Anguila anguila, or the representative of cyclostomatous - sea lamprey Pteromyzon marines.
Herpetofauna of the Slovinski National Park is represented by 10 species of amphibians and 5 species of reptiles (these numbers prove high biodiversity of this animal group in the domestic scale as generally in Poland there have been ascertained the occurrence of merely 18 species of amphibians and 8 species of reptiles). On the terrain of the Slovinski National Park there has been ascertained the presence of 2 species of toads: a European toad (Bufo bufo) and a British toad (Bufo calamita). Among the frogs, brown frogs are the most frequently met, such as: acommon frog (Rana temporaria) and a field frog (Rana arvalis). Less frequently, there occur the following species of green frogs: a pond frog(Rana lessonae), a European frog (Rana esculent) and a marsh frog(Rana ridibunda). Apart from the toads and frogs, a common spade foot (Pelobates fuscus) is an anurous amphibian quite numerously occurring here. Tailed amphibians are included in the second group of which, two representatives have been ascertained on the terrain of the Park belonging to the family of Salamandridae: a crested newt (Triturus cristatus) and a smooth newt (Triturus vulgaris). The reptiles of the Slovinski National Park are represented by 3 species from the family of lizards: a sand lizard (Lacerta agilis), acommon lizard (Lacerta vivipara) and a slow-worm (Anquis fragilis) as well as 2 species of snakes (non-poisonous) - a grass snake (Natrix natrix) and an adder (Vipera berus) - all species are legally protected.
Among 403 birds species observed in Poland, in the area of the Slovinski National Park (the SNP) in the last two centuries, in total, there have been ascertained 261 species, and among them, there were stated 184 species, which were approaching, or still have been approaching the hatches. The other 77 species appear while migrations, stay for winter here or irregularly fly in. Among all 184 birds species ascertained and recognized as the breeding ones in the area of the SNP - 5 are comprised with partial protection. There belong 3 species of corvine birds common on the terrain of the whole country, i.e.: ravenCorvus corax, hooded crow Corvus corone cornix and magpie Pica pica. The hatches of the 2 remaining species: herring gull Larus argentatus and cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo are associated in the Park with The Stone Island on the Gardno Lake, on which in the past, there were noticed the first hatches of this gull in Poland, as well as a unique, breeding colony of a cormorant was discovered which was situated on the ground. Among the breeding birds of the SNP, there are also common game species: teal Anas crecca,mallard Anas platyrhynchos, pochard Aytha ferina, tufted duck Aytha fuligula, cootFulica atra, the only in Poland breeding goose species - greylag goose Anser anser as well as the largest pi-geon - wood-pigeon Columba palumbus. The representatives of avifauna discussed below constitute the species comprised with strict protection. Among the day-predators, a special attention shall be paid to the presence of a few pairs of thesea eagle Haliaeetus albicilla, red kite Milvus mil-vus, marshes-marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus and hen harrier Circus cyaneus. As regards the owls - the nocturnal predators, there occur among the others.: eagle owl Bubo bubo - the largest European owl, Tengmalm's owl Aeogolius funereus, of which the characteristic settlement are the mountainous forests with spruce and a fir-tree, on the other hand, in Pomerania, there are preferred European beech forests with the participation of coniferous trees, as well as short-eared owl Asio flam-meus. Considering the fact of the abundance in the Park of water and marshy environments, there is numerously represented the group of birds so called: water - mud birds, to which belong very precious and more and more rarely met species, e.g.: common snipe Gallinago gallinago, common ringed plover Charadrius hiaticula, black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa, redshank Tringa totanus, little tern Sterna albifrons, ducks:widgeon Anas penelope, common shelduck Tadorna tadorna, pintail - Anas acuta and many others. As many as 35 species having the breeding in the Park are registered in the PCKZ, at the same time 20 of them belong to the species of high risk, being endangered by extinction. The other 15 are the species of lower risk or temporarily not jeopardised. Throughout the area of the Slovinski National Park (SNP) there runs one of the main spring and autumn bird's migration tracks. As the migrants, regularly appearing in the Park, there were included 151 species. There was also settled, that 73 species spend the winter on the terrain of the SNP. Apart from the migrants and the birds staying for winter in the SNP, there also occur the species, which in Poland are of the breeding statue, although in the Park they have presumably not found the proper conditions for performing the breeding. In the breading season a non-breading flock is observed with crane Grus grus counting up to 200 individuals. The same species is concentrated before the flight in the vicinity of Krakulice on the Łebsko Lake in the number reaching even 5000 birds. This area of the Park has attained the rate of a significant refuge for this species in the European scale. Non-breeding birds fauna appearing in the area of the SNP is characterised by immense species diversity. Some part of the birds is connected with the sea and is most often observed in winter on the seaside Baltic waters and among the others, they are: red-throated diver Gavia stellata, black-throated diver Gavia arctica, ducks: eider Somateria mollisima, common scoter Melanitta nigra, velvet scoter Melanitta fusca, long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis, redbreasted Merganser Mergus serrator. On the large lakes (Łebsko and Gardno) there stop numerous gaggles of geese: white-fronted goose Anser albifrons and bean goose Anser fabalis. More and more frequently, one can meet barnacles and swans: whooper swan Cygnus cygnus and whistling swan Cygnus columbianus, as well as large groups of wild ducks, e.g.: mallards Anas platyrhynchos, widgeons Anas penelope, teals Anas crecca, tufted ducks Aytha fuligula, pochards Aytha ferina. Throughout the area of the SNP, there migrate numerous species of the shore birds, feeding at the banks of the lakes, on the pastures and waterlogged areas, e.g.: oyster-catcher Haematopus ostralegus, little stint Calidris minuta, curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, knot Calidris cannutus, spotted redshank Tringa erythropus,whimbrel Numenius phaeopus and others. In the area of the Park there have also been notified very scarce birds, sporadically flying into Poland, such as: great northern diver Gavia immer, flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber, Steller's Eider Polysticta stelleri, King Eider Somateria spectabilis, Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus, dotterel Charadius morinellus, snowy owl Nyctea scandiaca, Richard's pipit Anthus richardie and others.
Therio-fauna of the Slovinski National Park is very rich - there occur here approximately 60% of mammals species among the ascertained in Poland. Among the most precious species (registered with different status in the Polish Red Book of Animals) one can mention the following: Miller's water shrew Neomys anomalus, parti-coloured bat Vespertilio murinus, porpoisePhocoena phocoena, gray seal Halichoerus grypus. Moreover, the optimal conditions of living in our Park, are found by the populations of the following animals - precious in the European scale: beaver Castor fiber, otter Lutra lutra, 10 species of batsChiroptera (of which barbastelle Barbastella bar-bastellus, noctule Nyctalus noctula and parti-coloured bat Vespertilio murinus are additionally registered in the Red List of Extincting and Endangered Animals in Poland). Mammals, which are the most rarely met here, are: European badger Meles meles and brown hare Lepus europaeus. On the other hand, the biggest biodiversity in the species composition is featured by the community of rodents, insectivorous as well as small beasts of prey, of which (raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides and mink Mustela vison) the numerical force unfortunately starts to constitute the problem. In many places, on the terrain of the Park, one can also notice the traces of presence of hoofed mammals such as: wild boars Sus strofa, roe-deers Capreolus capreolus and red deers Cervus elaphus.