Peat bogs and meadows


Waterlogged meadows on the Łebsko LakeA high level of the ground water around the lakes, along the rivers and larger flows of the SNP creates very good conditions for forming lowland peat-bogs with rushes sometimes reaching 400 m inland. These are the fertile ecosystems (not large quantities of calcium carbonate) rich in mineral, nutritive substances. The plants that can be met here are the sedges, Carex, and the accumulations of moss-sedge (moss grown spots). The brown moss with a slight participation of the peat moss builds the moss layer.
Within the time of building-up the beds of lowland peat, the influence of surface waters in the form of flooding the waters of the flowing rivers or the floods of lake waters is more and more limited. Water being delivered with the rainfalls starts to be of more and more significance. In this situation the temporarily (mixed) peats are formed. Here dominate the plants that form flat moss carpet with narrow leaf cotton grass, Carex limosa-marshy sedge, peat scheuchzeria, white beak sedge. One can meet here in a large abundance: water arum, three-leaf bog-bean, marshy lichen, and in the borders, intensively smelling marsh tea - Ledum palustre.
Highland peat-bogHighland peat bogs are the biotopes solely dependent on precipitation. Peat forming level is so high that these ecosystems do not have any contact with the ground waters. The quantity of delivered mineral, nutritive substances is not sufficient for the majority of plants, therefore on this strongly acid, ph > 5 and a poor settlement, there can live and function only outstandingly specialised plants such as: sundews: round leaf sundew - Drover rotundifolia, English sundew Drosera Anglica and Spatula leaf sundew Drosera intermediarefuelling the shortages of nitrogen throughout catching and digesting the insects, cross-leaved heath, moonwart or marshy cranberry. The carpet of moss is formed by peat-mosses of green and red colour. Thanks to special water cells they can store large quantities of water. Their weight may exceed the weight of a dried peat-moss even twenty times. A live highland peat-bog that grows, creates its peculiar and characteristic domes and valleys. The domes are built of peat mosses on which, there grow cranberry, sheathlike cotton-grass or moonwart. At the foot of the domes in the valleys there stagnates water in which one can meet another insectivorous plant common bladderwort. When the valley starts to be filled in with the peat mosses and slowly increases at the height at its foot, then another little valley creates. By dint of unlimited up-growth of peatmosses, their summits permanently grow, however, the lower parts die off and become fragmentarily decomposed; then follows a gradual peatbog increase. In Poland only at the seaside passage, there exist dome-like highland peat bogs of the Baltic type. They originate directly on the mineral substratum in the hollow of a very high level of the ground water as it occurs in the Łebska Spit in deflation depressions or in the time of swallowing the lake while the succession from the lowland peat-bog, through the temporarily peat-bog, until the highland peat-bog.

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